Journal of Environmental
1684-8799 / Print ISSN 1726-2135
© 2007 ISEIS.
All rights reserved.
A Goal Programming Based Multi-Time Step Optimal Material Flow Analysis Model for Integrated Computer Waste Management
P. K. Ahluwalia* and A. K. Nema
Department of Civil Engineering, I.I.T. Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India
*Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Management of computer waste is a growing concern and is more serious in developing countries where rudimentary methods of reuse, recovery and disposal are in frequent use which poses grave environmental and health hazards. Hence there is a clear reason to be concerned about the management scheme for computer waste which will be cost effective and also environmentally friendly. However, assessment of risk from the management of computer waste is a difficult task due to uncertainty in exact composition of toxic constituents and their release mechanism in the environment. The present study attempts to assess the risk associated with various computer waste management activities in relative terms and presents an integer linear goal programming based multi time step optimal material flow analysis model to achieve satisfaction of multiple objectives of economy and health and environmental risk. The model selects various treatment and disposal facilities from a given set and allocates optimum quantities of waste to them along chosen transportation routes, depending on different priorities to cost and risk. An illustrated hypothetical example of computer waste management is presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed formulation. Uncertainty in the waste generation quantities has been addressed using Monte Carlo simulation.
Keywords: computer waste, goal programming, integrated waste management, Monte Carlo simulation, multi-objective optimization, optimal material flow
Full Text (PDF) | Export citation to: EndNote RefMan
Cite this paper as: P. K. Ahluwalia and A. K. Nema, 2007. A Goal Programming Based Multi-Time Step Optimal Material Flow Analysis Model for Integrated Computer Waste Management. Journal of Environmental Informatics, 10(2), 82-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.3808/jei.200700103
- Agarwal, R., Ranjan, R. and Sarkar, P. (2003). Scrapping the hi-tech myth: computer waste in India, Toxics Link, New Delhi.
- Ahluwalia, P.K. and Nema, A.K. (2006). Optimal planning for computer waste, Proc. of Workshop on Efficient E-Waste Management Jointly Organized by TERI, India, the Institute of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment, DUT, Germany, and Department of Environmental Engineering, TUC, Greece.
- Anex, R.P., Lawver, R.A., Lund, J.R. and Tchobanoglous, G. (1996). GIGO: Spreadsheet based simulation for MSW systems, J. Environ. Eng., 122(4), 259-262.
- Badran, M.F. and El-Haggar, S.M. (2006). Optimization of municipal solid waste management in Port Said 每 Egypt, Waste Manage., 26, 534每545.
- Baetz, B.W. (1990). Optimization/simulation modeling for waste management capacity planning, ASCE J. Urban Plann. Dev., 116 (2), 59-79.
- Baud, I., Grafakos, S., Hordjik, M. and Post, J. (2001). Quality of life and alliances in solid waste management contribution to urban sustainable development, Cities, 18(1), 3-12.
- Bodner, R.M, Cassell, A. and Andros, P.J. (1970). Optimal routing of refuse collection vehicles, ASCE Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 96, 893-903.
- Brown, R.V., Kahr, A.S. and Peterson, C. (1974). Decision analysis for the manager, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
- Chang, N.B. and Wang, S.F. (1997). A fuzzy goal programming approach for the optimal planning of metropolitan solid waste management systems. Eur. J. Oper. Res., 99, 303-321.
- Chang, N.B., Chang, Y.H. and Chen, Y.L. (1997). Cost-effective and equitable workload operation in solid-waste management systems, J. Environ. Eng., 123 (2), 178-190.
- Chang, N.B. and Wang, S.F. (1996). Solid waste management system analysis by multi-objective mixed integer programming model. J. Environ. Manage., 48(1), 17-43.
- Costi, P., Minciardi, R., Robba, M., Rovatti, M. and Sacile, R. (2004). An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management, Waste Manage., 24, 277-295.
- Coyle, R.G. (1973). Computer-based design for refuse collection systems, in R. Deininger (Ed.), Models for environmental pollution control, Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science, pp. 307-325.
- EMPA. (2004). E-waste pilot study Delhi: knowledge partnerships with developing and transition countries (St. Gallen7). http://www.ewaste.ch/.
- Everett, J.W. and Modak, A.R. (1996a). Optimal regional scheduling of solid waste systems. I: Model development, J. Environ. Eng., 122(9), 785-792.
- Everett, J.W. and Modak, A.R. (1996b). Optimal regional scheduling of solid waste systems. II: Model solutions. J. Environ. Eng., 122(9), 793-799.
- Everett, J.W., Modak, A.R. and Jacobs, T.L. (1993). Optimal scheduling of composting, recycling and landfill operations in an integrated solid waste management system. Journal of Resource Management and Technology, 21(9), 16-26.
- Exporting Harm (2002). Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia prepared by the Basel Action Network (BAN) and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC). http://ban.org/E-waste/technotrashfinalcomp.pdf.
- Ghose, M.K., Dikshit, A.K. and Sharma, S.K. (2006). A GIS based transportation model for solid waste disposal 每 a case study on Asansol municipality, Waste Manage., 26, 1287每1293.
- Giannikos, I. (1998). A multi-objective programming model for locating treatment sites and routing hazardous wastes, Eur. J. Oper. Res., 104, 333-342.
- Gottinger, H.W. (1986). A computational model for solid waste management with applications, Appl. Math. Model., 10, 330-338.
- Hasit, Y. and Warner, D.B. (1981). Regional solid waste planning with WRAP, J. Environ. Eng. Division, 121(3), 109-114.
- Hu, T.L., Sheu, J.B. and Huang, K.H. (2002). A reverse logistics cost minimization model for the treatment of hazardous wastes, Transp. Res. E, 38(6), 457-473.
- Huang, G.H., Baetz, B.W. and Party, G.G. (1995a). Grey fuzzy integer programming: An application to regional waste management planning under uncertainty, Socio-Econ. Plann. Sci., 29, 1, 17-38.
- Huang, G.H., Baetz, B.W. and Patry, G.G. (1995b). Grey integer programming: An application to waste management planning under uncertainty, Eur. J. Oper. Res., 83, 594-620.
- Huang, G.H., Baetz, B.W. and Patry, G.G. (1994). Grey dynamic programming for waste management planning under uncertainty, J. Urban Plann. Dev., 120(3), 132-156.
- Huang, G.H., Baetz, B.W., Patry, G.G. and Terluk, V. (1997). Capacity planning for an integrated waste management system under uncertainty: A North American case study, Waste Manage. Res., 15, 523-546.
- Huang, G.H., Chi, G.F. and Li, Y.P. (2005). Long-term planning of an integrated solid waste management system under uncertainty - I. Model development, Environ. Eng. Sci., 22 (6), 823-834.
- Ignizio, J.P. (1976). Goal programming and extensions, Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts.
- Jacobs, T. and Everett, J.W. (1992). Optimal scheduling of landfill operations incorporating recycling, J. Environ. Eng., 118(3), 420-429.
- Jacobs, T.L. and Warmerdam, J.M. (1994). Simultaneous routing and siting for hazardous waste operations, J. Urban Plann. Dev., 120(3), 115-131.
- Jennings, A.A. and Sholar, R.L. (1984). Hazardous waste disposal network analysis, J. Environ. Eng., Vol.110, No.2, April, 325-342.
- Jennings, A.A. and Suresh, P. (1986) Risk penalty functions for hazardous waste management, J. Environ. Eng., 112, 105-115.
- Kalos, M.H. (1986). Monte carlo methods, Vol.1: Basics, Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York.
- Kirchsteiger, C. (1999). On the use of probabilistic and deterministic methods in risk analysis, J. Loss Prev. Process Indust., 12, 399-419.
- Klang, A., Vikman, P.A. and Bratteb?, H. (2006). Systems analysis as support for decision making towards sustainable municipal waste management - a case study, Waste Manage. Res., 24(4), 323-331.
- LaGrega, M.D., Buckingham, P.L. and Evans, J.C. (1994). Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw-Hill, New York.
- Leonelli, P. Bonvicini, S. and Spadoni, G. (2000). Hazardous materials transportation: a risk-analysis-based routing methodology, J. Hazard. Mater., 71, 283-300.
- Liebman, J.C. (1975). Models in solid waste management, in S. Gass & R. Sisson (Eds.), a guide to models in governmental planning and operations, Potomac, MD: Sauger Books.
- List, G.F., Mirchandani, P.B., Turnquist, M.A. and Zografos, K.G. (1991). Modeling and analysis for hazardous materials transportation: Risk analysis, routing/scheduling and facility location, Transportation Science, 25(2), 100-114.
- Lund, J.R. (1990). Least cost scheduling of solid waste recycling, J. Environ. Eng., 116(1), 182-197.
- MacDonald, M. (1996). Bias issues in the utilization of solid waste indicators, J. Am. Planning Assoc., 62, 236-242.
- Mirchandani P.B., Rebello, R. and Agnetis, A. (1995). The inspection station location problem in hazardous material transportation: Some heuristics and bounds, Infor., 33(2), 100-113.
- Mohan, S. (1983). Solid waste management by integer programming, Journal of Institution of Public Health Engineers, 4(1), 29-34.
- Najm, A.M. and El-Fadel, M. (2004). Computer based interface for an integrated solid waste management optimization model, Environ. Model. Software, 19, 1151-1164.
- Nema, A.K. and Gupta, S.K. (1999). Optimization of regional hazardous waste management systems: an improved formulation, Waste Manage., 19, 441-451.
- Nema, A.K. and Gupta, S.K. (2003). Multiobjective risk analysis and optimization of regional hazardous waste management system, Pract. Periodical Hazard., Toxic, Radioact. Waste Manage., 7(2), 69-77.
- Nozick, L.K., List, G.F. and Turnquist, M.A. (1997). Integrated routing and scheduling in hazardous materials transportation. Transportation Science, 31(3), 200-215.
- Openshaw, B.W. and Whitehead, P. (1985). A monte carlo simulation approach to solving multicriteria optimization problems related to plan making, evaluation, and monitoring in local planning, Environ. Plann. B, 12, 321-334.
- Peirce, J. and Davidson, G.M. (1982). Linear programming in hazardous waste management, J. Environ. Eng., 108(EE5), 1014每1026.
- Ramu, N.V. and Kennedy, W.J. (1994). Heuristic algorithm to locate solid waste disposal site, J. Urban Plann. Dev., 120(1), 14-21.
- ReVelle, C., Cohon, J. and Shobrys, D. (1991). Simultaneous siting and routing in disposal of hazardous wastes. Transportation Science, 25(2), 138-145.
- Royal Society (1992). Risk analysis, perception and management, the Royal Society, London.
- Saaty, T.L. (1980). The Analytical Hierarchy Process, Planning, Priority Setting, Resource Allocation, New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Sharma, M., Ammons, J.C. and Hartman, J.C. (2007). Asset management with reverse product flows and environmental considerations, Computers & Operations Research, 34, 464-486.
- Shih, L.H. and Lin Y.T. (2003). Multicriteria optimization for infectious medical waste collection system planning, Pract. Periodical Hazard., Toxic, Radioact. Waste Manage., 7(2), 78-85.
- Sinha-Khetriwal, D., Kraeuchi, P. and Schwaninger, M. (2005). A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India, Environ. Impact Assess. Rev., 25(5), 492-504.
- Solano, E., Dumas, R.D., Harrison, K.W., Ranjithan, S., Barlaz, M.A. and Brill, E.D. (2002a). Life cycle-based solid waste management. I: Model development, J. Environ. Eng.,128(10), 981每992.
- Solano, E., Dumas, R.D., Harrison, K.W., Ranjithan, S., Barlaz, M.A. and Brill, E.D. (2002b). Life cycle-based solid waste management. II: Illustrative applications, J. Environ. Eng., 128(10), 993每1005.
- Stowers, C.L. and Palekar, U.S. (1993). Location models with routing considerations for a single obnoxious facility, Transportation Science, 27(4), November, 350 每 362.
- Talinli, I., Yamanturk, R., Aydin, E. and Basakcilardan-kabakci, S. (2005). A rating system for determination of hazardous waste, J. Hazard. Mater. B, 126, 23-30.
- Tchobanoglous, G., Thiesen, H. and Vigil, S. (1993). Integrated solid waste management: Engineering principles and management issues, New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Times of India (2003). A disaster waiting to happen. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/168383.cms.
- Wang, F.S., Richardson, F.A., Richardson, A.J. and Curnow, R.C. (1994). SWIM-interactive software for continuous improvement of solid waste management, Journal of Resource Management and Technology, 22(2), 63-72.
- Wang, J.Y., Touran, A., Christoforou, C. and Fadlalla, H. (2004). A systems analysis tool for construction and demolition wastes management, Waste Manage., 24, 989-997.
- Zografos, K.G. and Davis, C.F. (1989). Multi-objective programming approach for routing hazardous materials, J. Transp. Eng., 115(6), 661-673.
- Zografos, K.G. and Samara, S. (1990). Combined Location 每 Routing model for hazardous waste transportation and disposal, Transportation Research Record, 1245, 52-59.